## A beginner’s guide to PC chairing

I recently had the privilege to serve as program committee (PC) chair for the yearly conference on quantum cryptography, QCRYPT’17 (note: for obvious public-relations reasons all names of conferences, PC members and authors in this post have been replaced by entirely fictional aliases). Although I had served on the PC of QCRYPT (and other conferences and workshops in quantum information and theoretical computer science) before, this was my first experience as chair. Since I am not aware of any publicly available resources that would help prepare one for this task, I thought I would share selected aspects of my experience here.

It is easiest to organize the discussion in chronological order: I will go through all the steps (and missteps), from the initial invitation email to the final notification to authors (probably safer to stop there – the next step would drag me into a discussion of the authors’ reaction, the consequences of which even the use of aliases may not save me from).

## Lights:

You just received that glowing email — “Dear XX, would you be interested to serve as PC chair for ConfY’18?”. Followed by the obligatory series of flattering comments. Such an honor… who would refuse? But don’t jump on that reply-send button just now. Here are a few points to take into consideration before making the decision.

First off, carefully consider the reviewing schedule. The dates of the conference are likely decided already, giving you a good sense of when the submission and notification deadlines will fall. The period in-between represents two to four months of your working life. Are you ready to give them up? I estimate that most days within that period you will have to allocate one to two hours’ work to the PC reviewing process (the load is not evenly spread: during the reviewing phase, it depends how many papers you assign yourself to review; during the discussion phase, it depends on how active you are, whether there is an in-person meeting, etc.). This is a serious commitment, comparable in load to taking on an additional 12-week teaching job. So if you’re already planning on teaching two courses during the same period – think twice.

A second point to consider discussing upfront with the steering committee (SC) is your “mission”. The SC probably has its own idea of the scope of the conference (there might even be a charter), how many papers they would like to be accepted, what justifies a “ConfY-worthy paper”, etc. How rigid are they going to be regarding these points? How much interference can you expect — do you have full latitude in deciding final acceptances (should be)? How flexible is the final number of accepts?

Last but not least, make sure this is something you want to do. How good is ConfY? Does it serve a specific purpose that you value? How often have you attended, or served on the PC? Do you feel competent to make decisions across all areas covered by the conference? Check the past couple years’ accepts. Many conferences are broader than we think, just because when we attend we tend to unconsciously apply a selective bias towards those talks for which we can at least parse the title. This time you’ll have to understand the contents of every single one of the submitted (let alone accepted) papers. So again, is this something you {\textit want} to do?

## Camera,

Selecting the PC. Now that the fatal decision has been made, my first piece of advice is all too simple: seek advice. Your first task is to form a PC. This is clearly the most influential decision you will make, both in terms of the quality and content of the final program, as well as the ease with which you and your “team” will get there. Choosing a PC is a delicate balancing act. A good mix of seniority and young blood is needed: seniority for the experience, the perspective, and the credibility; young blood for the energy, the taste for novelty, the muscle power. It is a good idea to involve a PC member from the previous installment of the conference; this may in particular help with the more difficult cases of resubmission.

I was fortunate to receive multiple recommendations from the SC, past conference chairs, and colleagues. While you obviously want to favor diversity and broad representation of topic areas, I also recommend selecting PC members with whom one has a personal connection. My experience has been that the amount of effort any one person is willing to put into the PC process varies hugely. It is inevitable that some PC members will eventually drift away. The more connection you have to them the easier it will be to handle irresponsiveness or divergences of opinion.

The more important comment I will make, one which I wish I had been more keenly aware of, is to know your PC. You will eventually select a team of researchers with complementary qualities, not only in terms of the areas that they are familiar with but also in more human terms: some will be good at responding to “quick opinion” calls on difficult papers, while others will have insightful comments about the overall balance of papers in the emerging list of accepted papers, or generate thoughtful advice on the handling of the more tricky cases, etc. At multiple points in the process you will need help; it is crucial to know the right person to turn to, lest you waste precious days or make ill-informed decisions.

With a list of names in hand, you are ready to send out invitations. (Before doing so, consider forming a rough schedule for the reviewing process. This will be needed for PC members to decide whether they will be sufficiently available during the requisite periods.) In my experience this part went smoothly. About ${75\%}$ of those on my initial list accepted the invitation (thanks!!). Filling in the remaining slots took a little more time. A small tip: if a researcher does not respond to your invitation within a reasonable delay, or is slow to decide whether to join or not, don’t push too hard: while you need a strong PC, you also need a responsive PC. It is not a good idea to start off in a situation where someone is “doing you a favor” by accepting the invitation as a result of some heavy arm-twisting.

Drafting a CFP. The second main item on your pre-submission agenda is the drafting of a call for papers (CFP). This may be done in cooperation with the SC. CFP from previous years can serve as a starting point. Check with last year’s PC chair if they were happy with the wording used, or if they have a posteriori recommendations: did they omit an important area of interest? Were the submission instructions, including formatting guidelines, clear?

A good CFP balances out two conflicting desirata: first, it should make your life easier by ensuring that submissions follow a reasonably homogeneous format, and are presented in a way that facilitates the reviewing process; second, it should not place an unreasonable burden on the authors who, as we all know, have better things to do (and will read the instructions, if they ever read them, no earlier than 23:59 in any timezone – making an overly precise CFP a sure recipe for disaster).

One place where precision is needed is in the formulation of the requirements for rigor and completeness. Are full proofs expected, or will a short 3-page abstract suffice? Or should it be both – a short abstract clearly presenting the main ideas, together with a full paper providing precise complete proofs? Be warned that, whatever the guidelines, they will be stretched, forcing you into quick judgment calls as to whether a submission fits the CFP guidelines.

You should also pay attention to the part of the CFP that concerns the scope of the conference: although for all I know this is all but ignored by most authors, and varies little from year to year, it does play an important role in carving out an inch of originality and specificity for the conference.

Another item on the CFP is the “key dates” that will bound the time available for the reviewing process: the submission deadline and the notification date. Here again there are conflicting requirements: the submission date should be as late as possible (to ensure accepted papers are as fresh as possible by the time the conference takes place), the reviewing phase as long as possible (you’re going to need it…), and the notification as early as possible (so there is time to compile proceedings, when they exist, and for authors to make travel arrangements). In my experience as PC member the time allocated for reviewing almost invariably felt too long – yes, I did write too long. However much time is allocated for the reviewing phase invariably ends up divided into ${\sim 90\%}$ procrastination and ${\sim 20\%}$ actual reviewing effort (obviously the actual reviewing gets under way too late for it to be completed by the reviewing deadline, which typically gets overstretched by some ${\sim 10\%}$). I suggest that a good calendar should allocate a month for collecting reviews, and a month for discussion. This is tight but sufficient, and will ensure that everyone remains engaged throughout. A month for reviewing allows a week for going through papers and identifying those for which external help should be sought; 2-3 weeks for actual reviewing; and a week for collecting reviews, putting the scores together, and scrambling through the last-minute calls for help. Similarly, a month of discussion would allow a week for score homogenization, two weeks to narrow down on the ${20\%}$ (say) borderline papers, and a final week to make those tough ultimate decisions. Tight, but feasible. Remember: however much time you allocate, will be taken up!

Now, as good a calendar you may have come up with, plan for delays. In my case I typically informed PC members that “reviews have to be completed by April 29th” and “the discussion phase will start on May 1st”. The “hidden” three days in-between the two dates were more than needed to track down missing reviews. Don’t ask PC members to complete a task the day you need the task completed, as it simply won’t happen: people have busy schedules, operate in different (and sometimes shifting) timezones, and have other deadlines to deal with. To respect your PC you ought to give them a precise calendar that you will follow, so they are able to plan ahead; but you also need to allow for the unavoidable time conflicts, last-minute no-shows, and other unpredictable events.

One last item before you break off. To set up the submissions webpage you’ll need to decide on a reviewing management software. I (quite mistakenly) didn’t give much thought to this. As PC member I had had a decent experience with easychair, and was under the impression that it was the most commonly used software – and would therefore be easiest to work with for the PC. Even though things went, on the whole, fairly smoothly, I had more than one occasion to regret the decision. The topic would deserve a blog post in itself, and I won’t expand here. Just make sure you carefully consider how easy the software will make different parts of the reviewing process, such as computing statistics, tracking missing reviews, ordering papers based on various criteria, allowing an efficient tagging system to keep track of memos or tentative decisions, handling communication with authors (including possibly the compilation of proceedings), etc.

## Action!

Alright, so you went for a stroll and enjoyed your most leisurely conference submission deadline ever – as PC chair, you’re probably not allowed to submit – but the bell has rung, the submission sever closed…now it’s your turn!

The last few hours. Actually, maybe this wasn’t quite your most leisurely submission deadline after all. I was advised to elect a “midnight anywhere on earth” deadline, as this supposedly made the guideline easier to comprehend for everyone. Not only do I now have strong evidence that I am not the only one to find this denomination absurdly confusing – where on earth is this place anyways, anywhere on earth?? – I would in any case strongly suggest setting a deadline that falls at a reasonable time in the PC chair’s timezone. You will get email from people unable to access the submission server (for whatever reason), unsure whether their submission fits the guidelines, asking whether they can get an extension, etc. It is more helpful if you can deal with such email as they arrive, rather than the next day.

Paper bidding. Before reviewing can get under way you need to assign papers to PC members. And before you can assign papers, PC members need to express their preferences. The resulting allocation is critical. It determines how many headaches you will face later on: how many papers will have low confidence reviews, how many closely related papers will have been reviewed by disjoint sets of PC members, how many papers will live on the enthusiastic scores of expert subreviewers. I found this phase challenging. An automatic assignment can be completed in milliseconds, but doesn’t take into account related submissions or expertise of PC members aside from their declared preference, which is a single noisy bit of information. I highly recommend (I realize I am “highly recommending” a lot of things for a first-timer – I only wish I had been told some of these ahead of time!) taking the process very seriously, and spending enough time to review, and tweak, the automatic assignment before it is made final.

Refereeing. Each PC member now has a healthy batch of papers assigned, and a deadline by which to submit reviews. What kind of guidelines can you give to make the process as smooth as possible? Discrepancies in scores are always an issue: whichever reviewing software you use, it is bound to produce some kind of score-based ranking; this initial ranking, although it will change during the discussion phase, induces a huge bias in final decisions (this effect is exacerbated for conferences, such as QCRYPT, where there is no in-person meeting). I don’t have a magic solution to this, but establishing clear guidelines in terms of the significance and expected proportion for each numerical score helps. I eventually found it necessary to prod outliers to modify their scores. This is one of the things easychair did not make particularly easy, forcing me to download data in Excel format and run some basic home-made scripts on the spreadsheet.

Aside from scoring, it is useful to include precise guidelines on the use of sub-referees and conflicts of interest (COIs). I allowed sub-refereeing but insisted that the final opinion should be the PC member’s. (It is not ok to copy-paste a sub-review while barely having gone through it!) Unfortunately sub-reviewers tend to be experts, and experts tend to be overly enthusiastic: watch out for papers that received three high scores, each of which with high confidence: easychair will rank those right at the top, but they may well be worth a second look.

Regarding COIs, I did not set overly strict rules (with the idea that “everyone knows when it is appropriate to declare a COI”), and regretted it. It is simply too uncomfortable to realize at a late stage that this very enthusiastic review was written by a PC member who happens to be a close collaborator of one of the authors, but chose not to disclose the COI. Do you discard the review? I don’t know. It depends: maybe the source of the COI played a role in the PC member’s vocal defense of the paper, and maybe not. Better not let it happen. It is not necessarily that even weak COI should forbid reviewing, but rather that COIs should be made explicit. As long as everyone states their position, things are in the open and can be taken into account.

Discussion. With all the reviews in (dream on… some reasonable fraction of the reviews in) begins the second phase of the reviewing process, the discussion phase. Success of this phase rests almost entirely on engagement of the PC chair and a few dedicated, dynamic PC members. Among PCs I have sat on the most satisfying were ones where the chair visibly spent large amounts of energy in the stimulation of online discussion. This is no trivial task: we all lead busy lives, and it is easy to let things slip; papers with high scores get in, low scores get out; a few days to discuss the few in the middle and we’ll be done…not so! Unfortunately, the initial ranking is bound to be abysmal. It is necessary to work to straighten things up. Some basic tricks apply: search for papers with high discrepancies in scores, low confidence, missing, very short, or uninformative reviews, etc. It is useful to individually prod PC members to keep the discussion going. This is a place where the “know your PC” recommendation comes in: for each submission, you need to be able to identify who will be able to clarify the arguments in favor and against the paper; who will have the technical expertise to clarify the relationship between papers X and Y, etc. It’s an exhausting, but highly rewarding process: I learned a lot by listening to my colleagues and trying to grasp at times rather subtle – and opinionated – arguments that could reach quite far from my expertise.

Decisions! The discussion has been going on for a couple weeks, and you already only have little time left: it is time to start making decisions. Proceeding in phases seems popular, and effective. It helps to progressively sharpen the acceptance threshold. As long as there are too many papers in play it is very hard to get a sense of where the boundary will lie; typically, far too many papers will have positive scores and enthusiastic proponents than can ultimately be accepted.

However much ahead of time you get started, the real decisions will take place in the last few days. I found it helpful to set a clear calendar for the process, marking days when decisions would be made, identifying clear categories (accept, accept?, discuss!, etc.), and setting explicit targets for each phase (accept X/reject Y many more papers, etc.), even if I wasn’t always able to meet them. It is also important that the PC as a whole be aware of the target number of papers that is to be accepted. I have frequently been on PC where the chair gave us the information that “we will accept all great papers”, only to learn later that a hard limit had (of course) been set. Conversely, I’ve also been extremely annoyed at last-minute decisions along the lines of, well, we accepted about as much we could, but there’s 4 left undecided cases, and, well, they’re all really good, so why don’t we just stretch the program a bit and accept all 4 at the last minute. To me this is the PC not doing its job… be prepared to make difficult decisions! Make it clear to the PC (and to yourself) what your goal is. Is it to serve the authors, the conference attendees, the advancement of science – all of the above (good luck)?

## Post-mortem

This was fun. Exhausting, but fun. Of course not all authors (or PC members) were happy. There will be complaints. And some of them will be justified: there is no perfect allocation. Mistakes happen. We did our best!

Some tasks lie down the road. Put a program together. Help select a best (student) paper. Gather statistics for the business meeting. But first things first: take a deep breath. This was fun.